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(Ubuntu: Lesson 10)

{ Install and Configure Apache2 }

Section 0. Background Information
  1. What is Apache
    • The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as Apache, is a web server software notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web.  Typically Apache runs on a Unix-like operating system.

  2. Prerequisite
  3. Lab Notes
    • In this lab we will how to do the following:
      1. We will update the apt-get package list.
      2. We will use apt-cache to search the package list for apache2.
      3. We will use apt-get to install apache2.
      4. We will use update-rc.d to create runlevel startup and kill scripts.
      5. We will create a basic index.html file.
      6. We will view that index.html file using a web browser.

  4. Legal Disclaimer
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    • In accordance with UCC § 2-316, this product is provided with "no warranties, either express or implied." The information contained is provided "as-is", with "no guarantee of merchantability."
    • In addition, this is a teaching website that does not condone malicious behavior of any kind.
    • You are on notice, that continuing and/or using this lab outside your "own" test environment is considered malicious and is against the law.
    • © 2012 No content replication of any kind is allowed without express written permission.


Section 1: Start Ubuntu 12.04
  1. Start VMware Player
    • Instructions
      1. For Windows 7
        1. Click Start Button
        2. Search for "vmware player"
        3. Click VMware Player
      2. For Windows XP
        • Starts --> Programs --> VMware Player


  2. Verify Virtual Machine Settings.
    • Instructions
      1. Click on Ubuntu 12.04
      2. Click on Edit virtual machine settings


  3. Configure Network Adapter
    • Instructions
      1. Click on Network Adapter
      2. Click on the Bridged Radio Button
      3. Click on the Close Button


  4. Start the Ubuntu 12.04 VM
    • Instructions
      1. Click on Ubuntu 12.04
      2. Click on Play virtual machine


Section 2: Login to Ubuntu
  1. Change to Gnome Classic
    • Instructions:
      1. Click on the Circle


  2. Select Gnome Classic
    • Instructions:
      1. Double Click on GNOME Classic


  3. Login to Server
    • Instructions
      1. User: Student
      2. Password: Please supply the student password.


Section 3: Become Root and Verify Network Connection
  1. Start up a Terminal
    • Instructions
      1. Click on the Terminal


  2. Become Root
    • Instructions
      1. sudo su -
      2. Supply the student password.


  3. Verify you have a network connection
    • Instructions
      1. ifconfig -a
        • eth0 is the name of my interface.
        • is my network IP address.
    • Note(FYI):
      • If you do not have an DHCP IP Address try the following:
        • dhclient
          • OR
        • /etc/init.d/networking restart


Section 3: Update apt-get's package index
  1. Update apt-get's package index
    • Instructions
      1. apt-get update
    • Note(FYI):
      • update is used to resynchronize the package index files from their sources. I.e., The "update" flag updates apt-get's local database with debian server's pkglist files. The indexes of available packages are fetched from the location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list.


Section 4: Search for apache2
  1. Search for apache2
    • Instructions
      1. apt-cache search apache2 | grep "^apache2 "
    • Note(FYI):
      • apt-cache is a command to manipulate and obtain information from the ubuntu packages.


Section 5: Install apache2
  1. Install apache2
    • Instructions
      1. apt-get install apache2
      2. Do you want to continue? Y


  2. Verify that apache is installed and is running
    • Instructions
      1. ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep apache
        • ps -eaf, show all processes.
        • grep -v grep, filter out the grep process.
        • grep apache, show only the apache process.
      2. pgrep -l apache
        • pgrep, is a command that combines both the "ps" and the "grep" commands.


Section 6: Startup Script for apache2
  1. Startup Script for apache2
    • Instructions
      1. ls -l /etc/init.d | grep apache2
    • Note(FYI):
      • As part of the apache2 installation, the apache2 startup script is placed in /etc/init.d/apache2.


  2. Stopping and Starting apache2 with /etc/init.d/apache2
    • Instructions
      1. cd /etc/init.d
      2. ./apache2 stop
      3. ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep apache2
        • Notice, that no lines are returned, because apache2 is not running.
      4. ./apache2 start
      5. ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep apache2
        • Now one line is returned, because apache2 is running.


  3. Stopping and Starting apache2 with the "service" command
    • Instructions
      1. service apache2 status
        • Notice, if apache2 is running a process number is displayed call the PID (process ID).
        • In my case, the PID is 4750.
      2. ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep 4750
        • Replace 4750, which your is your apache2 PID.
      3. service apache2 stop
        • This command still stop the apache2 daemon.
      4. ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep apache2
        • Notice, no processes are displayed for apache2, because we stopped apache2 in the above command.
      5. service apache2 start
      6. ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep apache2
        • ps -eaf, display all processes.
        • grep -v grep, filter out the grep command.
        • grep apache2', search for any process containing the string apache2.


Section 7: Could not determine the server's fully qualified domain name
  1. Fix message "Could not determine the server's fully qualified domain name"
    • Note(FYI):
      • Early in (Section 6, Step 2), you might have receive the following error message after restarting the apache server.
      • apache2: Could not determine the server's fully qualified domain name.
      • Below we will populate the fqdn file with the ServerName directive to silence this message.
    • Instructions
      1. echo "ServerName localhost" > /etc/apache2/conf.d/fqdn
      2. ls -l /etc/apache2/conf.d/fqdn
      3. service apache2 stop
      4. service apache2 start
      5. ps -eaf | grep -v grep | grep apache2


Section 8: Create startup and kill scripts for apache2
  1. Create startup and kill scripts for apache2
    • Instructions
      1. update-rc.d apache2 defaults
    • Note(FYI):
      • The update-rc.d command is used to create startup, enable, kill, and remove scripts for services listed in the /etc/init.d.
      • If defaults is used then update-rc.d will make links to start the service in runlevels 2345 and to stop the service in runlevels 016. By default all the links will have sequence number 20.
      • In our case, the apache2 installation already created the startup scripts.


  2. Verify startup and kill script was created
    • Instructions
      1. find /etc/rc*.d/* -print | xargs ls -l | grep apache2
        • find /etc/rc*.d/* -print, list all the file in /etc/rc*.d/*
        • xargs ls -l, Use the xargs command to issue provide a long list of each file that find displays.
        • grep apache2, only display files containing apache2.


Section 9: Create index.html file
  1. Ubuntu apache2 root directory
    • Note(FYI):
      • The /var/www is the default root directory for the Ubuntu apache2 webserver.
    • Instructions
      1. cd /var/www
      2. ls -l *
      3. cp index.html index.html.BKP
      4. ls -l *


  2. Create index.html file
    • Note(FYI):
      • The index.html file is the default homepage for the webserver.
    • Instructions
      1. date > index.html
      2. echo "<br>" >> index.html
      3. echo "Your Name" >> index.html
        • Replace the string "Your Name" with your actual name.
      4. cat index.html


Section 10: Proof of Lab
  1. Start Up Firefox
    • Instructions
      1. Applications --> Internet --> Firefox Web Browser


  2. Proof of Lab
    • Instructions
      1. Place your server's IP address in the URL box
        • E.g.
        • Replace with IP address obtain in (Section 3, Step 3).
    • Proof of Lab Instructions
      1. Press both the <Ctrl> and <Alt> keys at the same time.
      2. Do a <PrtScn>
      3. Paste into a word document
      4. Upload to Moodle


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