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(How to Set Up An SSH Key Infrastructure)

{ SSH Key Infrastructure, ssh-keygen,.ssh, authorized_keys }


Background Information
  • I have been asked by a few people how to set up an sshkey infrastructure.  This is extremely easy to set up.  From a teaching perspective, you might want to set up an ssh infrastructure the following reasons.
    1. So you do not have to manually supply your username and password to all the hundreds of servers you support or will support in the future.
    2. So you can write automation scripts using a trusted host.
      • May be you work for a company that does not have monitoring and administration script. 
        • You can use this infrastructure to set up trusted authentication and authorization.
        • In addition, you can write you own scripts that you can remotely execute on other servers for monitoring and administrative reasons.
5.0 Prerequisite
  1. Login to your TargetUbuntu01 VM, as username student
    • Make sure the Interface is up.  If not, please refer to past interface Power Point Slides.
    • For those of you that are not part of this class, this should be some flavor of Unix/Linux server that you have access too.

     

  2. Login to your TargetUbuntu02 VM, as username student
    • For those of you that are not part of this class, this should be another Unix/Linux server you also have access too.

     

5.1 Setting Up Your .ssh directory on TargetUbuntu01
  • From your TargetUbuntu01 VM
    1. cd /home/student
    2. mkdir .ssh
    3. ls -lda .ssh
      • "-d" means to list the directory name instead of its contents.
      • "-l" means display a long listing.
      • "-a" means to display normally hidden files that start with a dot.
    4. chmod 700 .ssh
      • Change the permissions of the directory to where only the user student has access.  (Read, Write, Execute).
    5. ls -lda .ssh
      • Make sure the permission are correct.

       

5.2 Setting Up Your .ssh directory on TargetUbuntu02
  1. From your TargetUbuntu02 VM
    • Login as username "student"
    • Then click on the Terminal Console Window (See Below)

     

  2. Now we will get your .ssh directory and authorized_keys file set up.
    • This is assuming a .ssh directory does not exist for username student on TargetFedora01.
      1. cd
        • This will put you in your home directory.
      2. pwd
        • Tells you your current working path.
      3. mkdir .ssh
        • Make directory called .ssh
          • NOTE:  Don't worry if you get an error saying the .ssh directory already exists.
      4. chmod 700 .ssh
        • Change permission on .ssh to read(4), write(2), execute(1) for only username student.
      5. cd .ssh
        • Change directory to the .ssh directory.
      6. ls -lrta
        • See if anything is in the directory.  This is really more of a habit for me than anything.
        • NOTE:  If an authorized_keys file existed, then do NOT do step 7.  Because the touch command would wipe out the contents of the authorized_keys file.
      7. touch authorized_keys
        • Create a file called authorized_keys
      8. chmod 600 authorized_keys
        • Change permission of the authorized_keys file to 600 (read, write).
      9. ls -lrta
        • Confirm your screen looks similar to mine.
    • .

     

  3. Determine the IP Address of TargetUbuntu02
    • ifconfig -a
      • If the command is not found, then enter /sbin/ifconfig -a
      • In my case, my IP address is 192.168.1.106
      • Note: You will use TargetUbuntu02's IP address in step #1 of section 5.4.

 

5.3 Creating the ssh key pair
  1. From your TargetUbuntu01 VM.  You need to be the student user.
  2. cd /home/student/.ssh
  3. ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096
    • ssh-keygen is a tool that creates key pairs.  (e.g., Private and Public keys).
      • "-t" specific the type of encryption used.
      • "-b" specific the length of the key.  Default is 2048
    • For the purposes of this lab, you are not required to name your key or to create a passphrase.  It is an industry practice to do both, but lets just cover the basics to get you going.
      • See Below Picture.

     

  4. Okay, lets see what you just did.
  5. ls -lrta
    • Notice there are two keys.
      • id_rsa
        • This is your PRIVATE key.
      • id_rsa.pub
        • This is your PUBLIC key.

     

  6. Although we tightened down the ".ssh" directory, let harden the permissions on the id_rsa.pub file as well.
    • chmod 700 id_rsa.pub
    • ls -l id_rsa.pub

     

  7. Just for grins, look at the contents of your public key (id_rsa.pub)
  8. cat id_rsa.pub
    • Notice a very long 4096 bit string

 

5.4 Let's put in place the "key" infrastructure
  1. On TargetUbuntu01
  2. cd /home/student/.ssh
  3. scp id_rsa.pub student@192.168.1.106:/home/student/.ssh/
    • scp - This is the Secure Copy command using openSSH.
    • Here we are copying the public key (id_rsa.pub) on TargetUbuntu01 to TargetUbuntu02's ssh directory (/home/student/.ssh/)

     

  4. On TargetUnbuntu02
  5. cd /home/student/.ssh
  6. ls -lrta
  7. cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys
    • The ">>" is used to get you in the habit of appending your public keys to the authorized_keys file.
    • The authorized_keys file can contain multiple public keys from many different users and many different hosts.
  8. chmod 600 *
    • It is good practice to always keep the files located in the .ssh directory hardened with (read,write) permission only.
  9. ls -lrta
    • Verify your screen is similar to mine.

     

5.5 Testing your ssh key infrastructure
  1. On your TargetUnbuntu01
  2. ssh student@192.168.1.106 uptime
    • I am telling ssh to execute the uptime command of the TargetUbuntu02 server.

     

  3. On your TargetUnbuntu01
    • ssh student@192.168.1.106 "hostname;date;who -b"
      • Now I am telling ssh to execute the command hostname, date and who -b on TargetUbuntu02.

     

  4. On your TargetUnbuntu01
  5. ssh student@192.168.1.106
    • Now I am logging in using ssh directly to TargetUbuntu02
      • Pretty kool,,, right.

     

 

Proof of Lab
  1. Cut and Paste a screen shot that look similar to Step #3 in Section 5.5 into a word document and upload to Moodle.

 

 



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